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Author Topic: Writing Task 2 in IELTS exam  (Read 38006 times)

13 Tháng Tư, 2009, 01:42:06 PM
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Hedgeing in academic writing - Nói giảm, nói nhẹ đi trong văn viết

+ How to "hedge":


•To use an intentionally noncommittal or ambiguous statement
•To use evasive or deliberately vague language
•To avoid fulfilling or answering a question completely
•To be confidently uncertain
•To use verbal and adverbial expressions such as can, perhaps, may, suggest, which deal with degrees of probability


In order to distinguish between facts and claims, writers often use tentative language such as it seems likely that... or arguably.... This technique is called hedging or vague language. Hedging is crucial in academic discourse, and hedge words account for approximately 1 word in every 100 in scientific articles.
Example: “Our results seem to suggest that in less industrialised countries the extensive use of land to grow exportation products tends to impoverish these countries' populations even more”.
It is often believed that academic writing, particularly scientific writing, is factual. However an important feature of academic writing is the concept of cautious language, or "hedging". It is necessary to make decisions about your stance on a particular subject, or the strength of the claims you are making. The appropriate use of hedging strategies for academic argumentation is a significant resource for student writers and plays an important part in demonstrating competence in a specialist register.


+ Four reasons to hedge

• By hedging, authors tone down their statements in order to reduce the risk of opposition. This position associates hedges with scientific imprecision and defines them as linguistic cues of bias which avoid personal accountability for statements.
• Writers want their readers to know that they do not claim to have the final word on the subject. Expressing a lack of certainty does not necessarily show confusion or vagueness. One could consider hedges as ways of being more precise in reporting results. Hedging may present the true state of the writers' understanding and may be used to negotiate an accurate representation of the state of the knowledge under discussion. In fact, academic writers may well wish to reduce the strength of claims simply because stronger statements would not be justified by the data or evidence presented.
• Hedges may be understood as positive or negative politeness strategies in which the writer tries to appear humble rather than arrogant or all-knowing. Hedging is a rational interpersonal strategy which supports the writer's position, builds writer-reader (speaker/listener) relationships and guarantees a certain level of acceptability in a community. Once a claim becomes widely accepted, it is then possible to present it without a hedge.
• A certain degree of hedging has become conventionalized; hedging now functions to conform to an established writing style in English.


+ Language used in hedging




11 Tháng Năm, 2009, 05:37:27 PM
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Thanks chị Dung rất nhiều, mình cũng đang làm quen với IE đây nhưng chưa vững lắm về Writing Task 2. Chị Dung có thể hướng dẫn những bước căn bản giúp mình được không?

Thanks chị một lần nữa!

cqk6

11 Tháng Năm, 2009, 11:09:28 PM
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I. Writing Introduction

Trong phần này, bạn có thể tóm tắt đề bài để cho thấy rằng bạn hiểu đề bài yêu cầu những gì. Nghĩa là bạn phải viết câu chủ đề cho bài essay của mình. Chú ý rằng KHÔNG rewrite đề bài, vì điều này sẽ bị bỏ qua và sẽ không được đếm từ. Như vậy bạn sẽ bị mất từ cho bài viết. Cái này gọi là Paraphrase lại đề bài. Câu cuối của Introduction sẽ là thesis statement, nói cụ thể mục đích của bài viết này là nói về vấn đề gì, nhằm trả lời cho câu hỏi gì.

Đối với dạng argumentative essay tức là kết thúc bằng câu hỏi "Do you agree or disagree...?" bạn có thể trả lời ngay rằng bạn agree hay disagree ở introduction, tuy nhiên không đưa ra lý do trong phần introduction. Hoặc bạn có thể dành câu trả lời trong phần Conclusion.


Ví dụ:

Topic: Discuss the causes and some effects of widespread drug use by young people in modern society. Make any recommendations you feel are necessary to help fight youth drug abuse.

Đây là dạng account essay nói về causes, effects and measures of smth.

My introduction:

Drug abuse seems to be one of the most difficult problems people have to face in the modern world. Young people have been using drug more widely than ever before, which is a major hindrance to the development of society. It is clearly seen that people should be aware of the causes and some effects of widespread drug used by the youth in order to look for some necessary measures to fight youth drug abuse.





11 Tháng Năm, 2009, 11:28:01 PM
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II. Writing Body Paragraph

- What is good body paragraph?
a. It has a good topic sentence, which has a good transition and clearly states the main idea of the paragraph.
b. It contains examples, facts, evidence, and explanation to support the main idea.

- Three parts in a body
a. The topic sentence: introduce the topic and the mian idea of the paragraph
b. The body: sentences that explain or support the topic sentences
c. The concluding sentence: a restatement of the topic sentence which reminds the reader of the main point of the paragraph (optional).

- Useful linking words for topic sentences:

One reason I believe is that...
Another reason I suppose...
Additionally,...
Furthermore,..
Moreover,....
First,...
Second,...
Last but not least,....

- The topic sentence
: It is the most important sentence of a paragraph. It has two parts: the topic (subject) and the controlling idea (limits the topic to a specific aspect).
Eg: New York is a fun place to be on New Year's Eve.
        Topic                     Controlling idea

Một topic sentence được cho là tốt nên bao gồm cả opinion or attitude of the writer. A statement ò fact is not an effective topic sentence because there is not much to write about it.
Eg: Twenty people atttended the party.

- How to develop a main idea in the body paragraph.


There are 4 ways to support a topic sentence
+ Using Facts, statistics.
+ Using examples
+ Using personal experiences
+ Using explanation


Eg: Facts and statistics:

Traffic acccidents are a serious problem in Vietnam (topic sentence). According to the newest research in Vn news, each year more than 10,000 people lose their lives in road accidents in this country. (supporting ideas using statistics).

Eg: Explanation:

Also, cooking takes a lot of time (topic sentence). While the food might not actually be on the stove for very long, you also have to consider the time that is spent shopping for the food, cleaning and chopping it, and cleaning up the kitchen it is cooked.(supporting ideas using explanation).

There are 2 levels of supporting sentences: the major and minor
+ The major supporting sentences are the main details that tell us about the topic sentence.
+ The minor supporting sentences tell us more about the major supporting sentences.


Eg:
The topic sentence:
First of all, children can have a very good social environment when they go to school.
Major supporting sentence:
They can have contact with many people like teachers, their peers, and other students.
Minor supporting sentence:
Through this contact, they can obtain communicative skills, which are of considerable importance if they are to succeed later in the world outside.

Note: All major sentences do not need to have the same number of minor supporting sentences. In fact, sometimes minor supporting sentences are not needed at all.




11 Tháng Năm, 2009, 11:33:28 PM
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Đây cũng là 1 bài nêu tóm tắt về Task 2, các bạn có thể tham khảo.

Writing When you are writing a Task 2 answer, a structure based on the following elements could be used (summarised in the flow chart opposite).

Introductory paragraph

The introduction of a Task 2 answer should begin with a general statement or idea of your own that takes into account the key topic words or their synonyms. The last sentence of the introduction should include a thesis statement which shows the point of  view or direction that will be taken in the answer.

Body paragraphs

Body paragraphs each consist of several sentences that are arranged in a logical way to develop a main idea. You can expect to write about 2-4 body paragraphs for a Task 2 answer. Each of these contains an appropriate connective word to ensure a smooth transition between paragraphs. This connective is then put in a topic sentence which is the main point of the paragraph clearly stated in a sentence. Every sentence in the paragraph must be directly related to it. Try to develop every paragraph adequately. This may be done through the use of examples, explanations, detail, logical inference, cause and effect or making comparisons or contrasts. There are many different ways to organise your ideas for body paragraphs. Be confident of the ideas you choose.

The conclusion

A good conclusion serves several purposes:

    * It indicates the end of your essay.
    * It gives your final thoughts and assessments on the essay subject.
    * It weighs up the points in your essay and should strengthen your thesis statement.
    * Do not simply repeat your opening paragraph. This appears too mechanical and superficial.

INTRODUCTION

    * General statement
    * Thesis statement

BODY PARAGRAPH


    * Topic sentence including connective word
    * First supporting sentence
    * Second supporting sentence
    * Third supporting sentence

CONCLUSION

    * Final assessment with concluding connective

Source: http://www.bktit.org

12 Tháng Năm, 2009, 11:06:23 AM
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Cảm ơn chị Dung rất nhiều, mình sẽ đọc kỹ những bước mà chị đưa ra và cố gắng luyện tập. Có lẽ mình phải nỗ lực thật nhiều để viết T2 được smooth, còn viết hay chắc phải depends on skills mà thôi.

Chúc chị sức khỏe!

cqk6

15 Tháng Năm, 2009, 02:48:01 PM
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Dear chị Dung,

Mình đã hiểu được một phần nào bố cục trình bày một bài Essay, nhưng còn thắc mắc ở điểm này: các dạng thông thường ra thi trong Ielts task 2 và những thủ thuật để có thể làm tốt một bài essay.

Rất mong nhận được sự giúp đỡ từ chị, chị có thể email cho mình qua địa chỉ cqk6@yahoo.com

Cảm ơn chị Dung nhiều nhiều :P

cqk6

15 Tháng Năm, 2009, 10:02:31 PM
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Có 3 loại essay trong Writing Task 2 đó là: Argumentative essay, discussion essay và account essay.

+ Argumentative essay
: Thường trong topic sẽ có 1 statement và kết thúc bởi những câu hỏi như: Do you agree or disagree with the above statement hoặc To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? hoặc To what extent would you support or reject the idea of moving these subjects from school curriculum?

Ở dạng essay này, cách trình bày được thể hiện như sau

- Introduction: paraphrasing of the essay statement (không rewrite statement) + thesis statement nói lên opinion của người viết là agree or disagree with the statement.
Template:

Many people think that ....However I feel...
According to some people....Personally I believe....
Some people are of the opinion that...Nevertheless, I think...


EG:
Topic: Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

My introduction:
Many people think that universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject.  In my opinion, universities are places where we choose to continue to study and no matter if you are a woman or a man, so there is no need to distinguish male from female students there. (...for some following reasons (optional))

- Body paragraph: Thường có 2 đoạn trong phần Body.
Đoạn 1 nói về lý do tại sao người viết lại agree or disagree with the statement, trình bày theo những cách đơn giản như:
The first reason is...., the second reason is....
My main reason is...., Another justification is..., Last but not least....

Đoạn 2 nói về refuting the opposing idea. Tức là người viết sẽ đưa ra ý kiến của những người trái ngược tại sao lại có suy nghĩ trái ngược với mình nhưng sau đó sẽ dùng cách lập luận phản bác lại ý kiến đó (nhưng chú ý không được đưa ra ý kiến lặp lại với những lý do đã nêu trên, vì vậy nên dành 1 lý do ở nêu trên cho ý kiến ở dưới này).
Template như sau:
Opponents of the ideas say that....I find it hard to agree because...
Those who disagree (agree) point out that...There may be some truth in their argument, however, it can not be denied that...
Although some people think that..., such....
Others may argue that....This is partly true, then again....
Others may think that....This point has some merits on its surface. However....


- Conclusion: Restate what you think and make any suggestions if you want.

+ Account essay: Tham khảo bên topic: [Discuss] Essays in Writing Task 2 in IELTS tại link: http://www.olympiavn.org/forum/index.php?topic=33912.0

+ Discussion essay
: Đây là loại khó nhất trong writing task 2 (my opinion).
Thông thường trong topic sẽ có 2 luồng ý kiến và mục đích là người viết phải viết trên quan điểm của 2 luồng ý kiến đó.

Eg:
Some people said the age of books is past. The information will be presented by video, computers, televisions, films. Others think the books and the written words will be necessary for spread information and complete education. Discuss

+ Introduction: General statement: background information bases on the statement in the topic + thesis statement ( a conflicts of two ideas)
Template: There are many arguments for and against this idea.
The idea has always been a matter of debate


+ Body paragraph
: Có 2 đoạn, mỗi đoạn nói về một luồng ý kiến và lý do tại sao lại support hay không support cho ý kiến đó.
Para 1: Arguments (you do not support)
Para 2: Arguments (you support)
Template:
People in favour of...argue that. On the other hand, some people argue that...
Some people believe that...They argue...Others are of the opinion that...
There are quite plausible reasons for opposing idea...However, there are also strong reasons why....


+ Conclusion: Conclude with your opinion based on your arguments and make any suggestions (optional).
All thing considered, I am convinced that...
( or In short I claim/maintain/hold the idea that...)


14 Tháng Mười Hai, 2009, 09:56:24 AM
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REFUTING THE OPPOSING IDEA IN AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

I.   What is refuting
-   Refuting an opposing view means that you have to prove that the argument of those who disagree with you is wrong. This makes your arguments stronger and more convincing.
-   A good argument always takes the opposing point of view seriously. Refuting is often used in an argumentative/persuasive essay.
Example
Topic: Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to school. Which of these two school policies do you think is better. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Whether to make school uniforms compulsory or not has long been a controvesial issue. Students are required to wear uniforms at some high schools while are allowed to wear what they want at others. I am personally inclined to agree with the mandatory use of unifors at high school for a number of obvious benefits this policy offers.
One of the most obvious benefits of such a policy is that it makes high school more affordable for both students and their parents. Clothing, especially trendy, fashionable clothing, is very expensive and teenagers usually want to have several different outfits in their wardrobes and for some, the more the better. When there is no possibility of dressing fashionably at school, a students’s clothing bill will go down drastically.

Furthermore wearing the same school uniform as everyone else eliminates a significant source of discomfort and self-consciousness for many teenagers: the uncertainty that what they are wearing is right. Such anxiety interferes with a student’s ability to act in ways that show his or her personality to advantage.
Finally, a mandatory school-uniform policy will reduce the amount of teasing and bullying among students. Currently, many students are teased or put down simply because they dress differently from everyone else or because they can’t afford to dress like the majority. Once all students wear the same uniform, there will be much less opportunity for these kinds of intimidating behaviors.

Opponents of uniforms at school argue that the policy may create a boring scholl environment since all students wear the same things and this can discourage students from learning effectively. I find it hard to agree with this argument since whether a school environment is interesting or not depends on a number of factors including teaching methods, extra-curricular activities other than student’s outfits. Another opposing view of uniforms is that students should have freedom to show their diversity through the way they dress. This is partly true, then again, the main purpose of school is to provide an environment for students to learn and obtain knowledge and skills, not a place to show their fashions. They have a lot of chance to do this outside school. Futhermore, your outfit is not necessarily the only way to demonstrate diversity at school. Diversity may be the variations in thinking, ways of learning, personalities.

For all the above reasons, I believe that students should be required to wear uniforms at school. Perhaps, each school can ask students’ opinions on the way its uniform is designed so that at least the uniform can reflect their needs and taste and thus can be more welcomed by its users.


II.   Structures for Refuting an opposing view
a.   Concessional disagreement
Opponents of the idea say that…….There may be some truth in their argument, however, it can not be denied that…
Those who disagree point out that…. Perhaps this is true, but it can not be denied that…
Those who disagree point out that….This is partly true, then again,…..
Those who disagree point out that….This point has some merits on its surface. However,…

b.   Mild disagreement
Although some people think that…, such…
Others may argue that…, I find it hard to agree because….
Others may argue that… Nevertheless, I can not agree for the following reasons.

27 Tháng Một, 2010, 02:04:49 PM
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Những bài mẫu của IELTS Task 2 khác, các bạn có thể xem tại link sau:

Writing Task 2 Examples

27 Tháng Một, 2010, 02:36:36 PM
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IELTS Writing: connective words

These connective words are awesome, but they won’t help you if you are seeing them for the first time and don’t know how to use them in a sentence. So now, I am repeating the whole list – with examples, where appropriate.

Addition

in addition
In addition, I would like to point out that my neighbor is disturbing me late at night.

and similarly
Your life will change forever and similarly, your whole family will feel the change.

likewise
Some people have little time for a hobby, and have likewise little will to get one.

as well as
Beauty, as well as smarts, is a remarkable quality

besides
We aren’t friends. Besides, I don’t feel it’s my place to set him straight.

furthermore
Computers are getting faster and faster these days; furthermore, their cost is getting lower and lower.

also
moreover

I’ve wanting a change for a long time, moreover, I feel I deserve one.

and then too
not only … but also

Not only this product is good for your hair, but also for the whole body.

Sequence

first(ly) initially

Initially, you would start putting a plan together.

second(ly)
to begin with

To begin with, you will need to commit a portion of your time to studying.

then
next
earlier/later

Later on there comes a stage when your skills are put to a test.

after this/that
following this/that
Consequence

as a result

I studied well and as a result, I got a high score.

thus
so
therefore

I was younger and therefore, less experienced.

consequently
it follows that
thereby

I upset my friend, thereby causing her pain.

eventually
then in that case
admittedly

Admittedly, he is the smartest person I know.

Contrast

however

The book is expensive, however it’s worth it.

on the other hand
She says she feels fine, on the other hand, her face is pale and she doesn’t look healthy.

despite
in spite of

In spite of the difficulties, the task was completed.

though
He still insists, though he knows that won’t do any good.

although
but
on the contrary

The music didn’t lift her spirit, on contrary, it made her feel weak and vulnerable again.

otherwise
yet instead of

He felt unwelcome, yet instead of leaving, he stayed.

rather
Eggs for breakfast is not a good idea, I would rather have some toast.

whereas
He was her true love, whereas for him she was just another girlfriend.

nonetheless
While they didn’t trust each other, nonetheless they worked together for many years.

« Last Edit: 27 Tháng Một, 2010, 02:50:17 PM by thuydung »

09 Tháng Hai, 2010, 02:50:01 PM
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Chị ơi chị có thể giúp em cấu trúc của "account essay" được không? Em xem trong topic dẫn ở trên nhưng thấy khó tổng hợp quá!

09 Tháng Hai, 2010, 04:02:54 PM
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Em nghĩ là account essay sẽ phải viết về cả hai mặt của một vấn đề nhưng phải chọn ra vấn đề nào muốn nhấn mạnh lên để nêu ý kiến của mình.
@Chị Dung : em nhớ có loại essay For and against, đó có phải thuộc loại argumentative không ạ?

09 Tháng Hai, 2010, 06:27:46 PM
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Ý mình muốn hỏi cấu trúc :
- Introduction
- Body
- Conclusion
mỗi cái đó cần phải viết những gì? Thân bài gồm mấy đoạn, từ ngữ ra sao ý ạ.

11 Tháng Hai, 2010, 04:43:39 PM
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Em nghĩ là account essay sẽ phải viết về cả hai mặt của một vấn đề nhưng phải chọn ra vấn đề nào muốn nhấn mạnh lên để nêu ý kiến của mình.
@Chị Dung : em nhớ có loại essay For and against, đó có phải thuộc loại argumentative không ạ?
@ Em Yiri: Loại For and against là Discuss Essay em à, em phải ý kiến 2 chiều của 1 vấn đề.

Account Essay thì nhiều thể loại lắm, ví dụ cause, effect and solution; advantages and disadvantages (nói chung thông thường là sự thật về những vấn đề đó).

Còn Argumentative là ý kiến của em về một vấn đề và em bảo vệ ý kiến đó của mình.

Quote
Chị ơi chị có thể giúp em cấu trúc của "account essay" được không? Em xem trong topic dẫn ở trên nhưng thấy khó tổng hợp quá!

@ Duy Linh: Em có thấy chị in đậm những câu ở những bài chị post lên không? Có thesis statement, topic sentences, supporting ideas. Còn nếu em muốn cụ thể hơn, chị sẽ tóm tắt lại cho em sau nhé.